PTE Re-tell lecture:
PTE Re-tell lecture is quite straightforward. Here you need to re-tell what you heard. The audio begins to play automatically. You may also see an image related to the audio. You have only 10 seconds to prepare. Following are the frequently asked topics for PTE Re-tell lecture.
PTE Re-tell lecture topics:
- Coffee Industry
- The lecture is about the changes that have taken place in coffee production.
- The production of coffee has increased from 30 billion to 60 billion since last 10 years.
- The huge demand in Europe and America has made Vietnam the second biggest producer which has greatly affected Columbia’s production.
- However, there is a crease in the output of America and Europe.
- People’s drinking habit is also undergoing changes.
- This lecture talked about the darkness between galaxies.
- A picture from NASA was provided to further explain the darkness.
- This Hubble picture is copyright free and can be found in newspapers, magazines and on the Internet.
- According to the lecturer, gaps between galaxies are not dark.
- The reason why we cannot see it is due to that the expansion of the universe cause lights to be shifted to lower frequencies, so our eyes are not able to detect the infrared light.
- To conclude, the darkness between galaxies still remains mysterious to us.
- Education expenditure in European countries
- The lecture talks about the expenditure on education among different European countries.
- University funding is related to GDP and UK is the bottom country. Italy and France are close to that of UK.
- Denmark and Finland spent much more money on public and private schools.
- OCED on tertiary education costs compare with GDP, with gram UK has a lower investment, Denmark and Finland have double their investment.
- Community service workers
- This lecture gives information about the community health worker in India.
- According to the lecture, the speaker mentioned that community health workers need advice and trainings, especially for HIV and other diseases.
- Training given by professional organizations and professors can effectively help workers to know the scope of services and prevent the spread of disease.
- Moreover, Indian has quarterly meetings to follow up related matters.
- However, in the end, the speaker said that large workshops and seminars are not necessary, and large consultations are not suitable in some cities.
- Low childbirth rate
- This lecture talks about low childbirth rate.
- More and more western countries women under 30 years old do not want to give birth to babies.
- There is a decreasing birth rate and two adults only gave birth to average one child.
- It affects the development of both man and women in western countries and it relates several factors such as unemployment rate.
- Western women didn’t want to have children, the lowest birth rate in human history.
- Animal survives and reproduces
- This course is a general condition that how animals can survive and reproduce,
- how they maintain their body underwater, tolerate different temperature, seasons and how they use their inhabit, daily activities and behaviors.
- The researchers use a frog as an example and put it into the water and boil the water.
- The result of the experiment indicates that the frog can adjust their body temperature according to the change of the water temperature in order to survive itself.
- Brain Development
- The lecture talks about the brain development. To begin with, the speaker says that people will have language ability and cognitive ability as the brain develops.
- After that, he mentions that different period of brain development has a different influence on people. For example, in short time, such as 3 months, the brain will develop the low-level ability.
- For several years, the brain develops cognitive skills.
- More importantly, some defects in brain development may have negative effects on people’s future life.
- At the end, the speaker emphasizes that childhood development has a great impact on the adult brain in terms of the sensory pathway, language, and higher cognitive function.
- To conclude, further studies on human brain are necessary.
- Recent research on distant monitor technology
- The lecture talks about a new kind of remote distant monitoring technology called underwater Antares detectors.
- These detectors can be used to observe the environment change and water temperature change.
- More importantly, these detectors are installed underwater to monitor fish’s’ reaction to the feeding.
- By putting a camera into the cage and then put into the water, people can observe the fish’s reaction to feed so that it can help people to observe fish reactions without being physically there.
- This makes it possible for people to change their feeding strategy quickly when fish do not react to the feeding.
- The technology can also identify the water quality.
- The lecture talks about thermodynamic theory and kinetic theory which are a major development of physics.
- To begin with, the speaker points out that thermodynamics is about heat and temperature transmission and their relation to energy and work.
- After that, he mentions that the laws of thermodynamics which describe how quantities behave under various circumstances are constant and statistical.
- More importantly, the laws of thermodynamics are obeyed under most situations, however, there are exceptions.
- At the end, he emphasizes that exceptions happen when comes to the kinetic energy of molecules which is about random motion of atom.
- Female student and male student math score and English scores
- This lecture mainly talks about the boys and girls performance in English and Mathematics.
- According to the lecture and the PPT provided to us, over the 6 years, girls outperform boys in English which is around 10% higher.
- However, in terms of Math, there is no clear difference between boys and girls.
- There are 3 reasons to explain this.
- Firstly, biological factors. Second is the social factors Thirdly, pre-school factors.
- Dimensions (has a diagram which 4 parameters)
- This lecture talks about dimensions.
- Dimension means how many points (or parameters) are required to describe a position.
- To describe a position on the equator, one parameter enough i.e. longitude.
- To describe other positions on the earth two parameters are required they are longitude and latitude.
- To describe the position of the earth three parameters are required they are longitude, latitude, and altitudes.
- In similar way to describe position in the space, we need 4 parameters including longitude, latitude, altitudes and time parameter
- Licking and Grooming (LG):
- Rat experiments with low LG and high LG.
- Some mother rats spend a lot of time licking, grooming, and nursing their pups.
- Others seem to ignore their pups.
- Highly nurtured rat pups tend to grow up to be calm adults, while rat pups who receive little nurturing tend to grow up to be anxious.
- The offspring of High LG rats have better ability to deal with stress and alcohol, but low LG didn’t.
- It turns out that the difference between calm and an anxious rat is not genetic—it’s epigenetic (Non-genetic). And the epigenetic pattern that mom establishes tends to stay put, even after the pups become adults.
- Economic growth
- This lecture mainly talks about the economic development in Latin America.
- According to the lecture and graph provided, we can find that in the past 20 years, the percentage of economic development in Latin America grew 80%.
- However, after the globalization and reform, the growth turns to slow down from 80% to 10%.
- Therefore, the speaker mentions the economic after reform becomes unsustainable.
- And some people start criticizing is the reform a positive or negative development.
- Sound receptor
- The lecture talks about the mechanism behind the sound receptor in our ears.
- The speaker mentioned about how beautiful it is and it appears to be the spiky and flappy thing in the ear; it can translate vibrational energy coming from the eardrum into physical motion throughout the fluid, and then further into an electrical signal.
- The speaker, in the end, invites MIT students to learn more about it as they think it as a remarkable device.
- Welsh Language
- Gives some figures of people who can speak and understand Welsh.
- The Welsh language is a Celtic language which is spoken by people living in Welsh and other western countries.
- At the beginning of the 20th century, about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language.
- Towards the end of the century, the proportion of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%.
- In addition, many Welsh speakers live in England and greater London area.
- Population Growth
- Mega City The lecture is about population growth and resource consumption from 1900 to 2000.
- In 1900, the population was about 1.5 billion and it increased to 6 billion in 2000.
- The increase of energy consumption was much more significant which is increased by 16 folds.
- Due to the urbanization, cities, which only account for 2% of the land, have 50% of the total population and consumes 75% of the resources.
- At the end, the lecturer emphasizes that people not only use every resource on the planet but also produce tons of wastes. Consuming resources has increased 60 fold and it makes big burden to the environment.
- Bomb calorimeter
- There are many components of a bomb calorimeter, the food chamber is filled with oxygen, there will be a chemical reaction between the food and the oxygen, the device is used to determine the heat coming from the combustion.
- The water chamber absorbs the released when food is burned.
- The thermometer measures the increased temperature of the water so that it can calculate the energy of the food.
- The airspace and insulation prevent heat loss.
- This is similar to the way the human body breaks down the food to give off the energy.
- Human digest system cannot absorb full energy, so bomb calorimeter cannot measure as same as the actually absorbed.
- Australia’s changing role (export)
- The changes in Japan, America and China’s export to Australia started from 1995.
- In the past, Australia was isolated from UK & USA.
- Nevertheless, nowadays with the rise of Asian countries, especially China, Australia has become a famous destination and export country.
- Japan now is the largest exporting country to Australia, and China will replace the position in the future.
- Australia should take the advantage of China’s rise to develop its exports.
- Napoleon 3 innovate Paris
- This lecture mainly talks about the renovation of Paris in the 1890s.
- The renovation was a vast public program commissioned by Napoleon the third and directed by Haussmann.
- Napoleon the third instructed Haussmann to bring air and light to the center of Paris and to drain the sewage.
- And he also asked Haussmann to plant more trees, build roads and to make the city safer.
- The reason for doing this was that the old Paris had many serious problems such as overcrowding, diseases, and crimes.
- The lecture talks about one of the four findings from biology studying.
- Although butterfly, flowers and dolphin and other creatures look different, they are closely related to each other.
- They all rely on DNA and RNA to store and transmit genetic information.
- They all based on cells, which is the fundamental structure of lives.
- All organs have metabolism system, which converts energy from one form to another.
- Universe Civilization
- The universe produces one hundred something of planets annually,
- however, only averagely 7 planets are suitable for high civilization, and the rest planets are either too cold or too hot.
- Therefore, only 20% of the planet can support human to survive.
- Non-government Organizations
- The lecture talks about the non-governmental organization which may be established by governments, foundations, companies, or individuals. NGOs are highly diverse organizations engaged in a wide range of activities.
- The number of NGOs in America is 1.5 million and India has around 2 million in 2009. Last but not the least, the speaker suggested that it is hard to define the NGO and the term is rarely used. The most common focus is on orientation and level of operation.
- This profound movement towards harnessing voices and resources from outside the realm of government and officialdom reflects a profound growth in NGO’S, the third sector, as some call it. As Robert Putnam discovered in the field of local government in Italy, the best predictor of governmental success was the strength and density of a region’s civic associations. Its number has increased by 40 fold since last century.
- Immigration effects
- Nowadays immigrates who work in industrialized countries can send back money to their home country about 200000 billion or million dollars.
- However, the money that they receive as a help from government is about 100000 million or billion dollars (bar chart)
- CEO SURVEY
- The lecture talks about a survey of 100 CEO’s opinions about what will affect the company’s operation.
- The main question here is which area of activity should contribute most effort.
- 58% of CEOs agree with IT because IT is time-consuming and complex.
- It also mentions other two aspects, which are marketing sales and financial management while IT is the most important one.
- Civil Society Group
But in the face of this sense of disempowerment, there surprisingly is no decline in involvement in organizations, which seek to share wealth and opportunities, protect one another’s rights and work towards the common good. According to the United Nations, civil society groups have grown 40 fold since the turn of last century. Internationally, the non-profit sector is which one trillion dollars, and there are 700,000 such organizations in Australia alone. The UN recognizes 37,000 specifically civil society organizations across the globe and gave 3,500 accreditation to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. This profound movement towards harnessing voices and resources from outside the realm Of governments and officialdom reflects a profound growth in NGO’s, “the third sector”, as some call it. As Robert Putnam discovered in the field of local government in Italy, the best predictor of governmental success was the strength and density of a region’s civic associations.
- This Lecture talks about the disempowerment and non-profit sector.
- The non-profit sector is worth 1 trillion dollars and there are 700,000 organizations in Australia.
- The United Nations recognizes 37,000 civil society organizations and 3,500 of which was accredited to the World Summit on sustainable development.
- The best predictor of governmental success was power and density of a countries’ non-governmental association.
- Marshmallow experiment
- This experiment is based on the bonus for not eating candy within 15 mins, self-control ability will be affected by environments.
- The children under 4 years old will eat it at once, while elder children can resist for a longer time and thus receiver more extra rewards.
- In the test, the longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with higher competency later in life.
- Also, another factor is a personal experience.
- Paper Windmill
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VfxdRbOVNI 前 50s
- Open border – 4 Level
- This lecture discusses 4 reasons to support open borders.
- Firstly, the speaker believes that people should be allowed to move freely on principle.
- Secondly, open board contributes to the economy of developing countries,
- Thirdly, opening borders provides people from developing countries to get richer in developed countries.
- This is a humanitarian reason which leads to social justice. In conclusion, the speaker supports opening borders because of principle, economic, humanitarian and reasons.
- Monkey and Typewriter
- The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare.
- In this context, “almost surely” is a mathematical term with a precise meaning, and the “monkey” is not an actual monkey, but a metaphor for an abstract device that produces a random sequence of letters and infinitum.
- The theorem illustrates the perils of reasoning about infinity by imagining a vast but finite number, and vice versa. The probability of a monkey exactly typing a complete work such as Shakespeare’s Hamlet is so tiny that the chance of it occurring during a period of time of the order of the age of the universe is minuscule, but not zero. But technologies can help monkeys to write. If the monkey are given a pen and some papers to spell the word “monkey”, they can only scratch the paper. By contrast, if they are given a typewriter, it will take those over 10 years to produce the right spelling. However, if they can use computer programing, they can finish the task within a day.
- The speech is a hypothesis about monkey and typewriter.
- People believe that a monkey hitting key at a random on a typewriter keyboard for a very long time such as 600 million years, it can almost surely complete works of Shakespeare.
- This assumption is possible in mathematics but not in reality.
- Eukaryotes & prokaryotes
- This lecture talks about the Eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
- Examples of eukaryotic cells are human cells and bacteria are examples of prokaryotic cells.
- The major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is eukaryotic cells have a “true” nucleus containing their DNA whereas prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus.
- Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes contain large RNA/protein structures called ribosomes, which produce protein.
- (Reducing government/modifying government, there is an issue of moving power to people, moving away from power from state. The power system is private power)
- The lecture first stated the need to modify government powers.
- Then it followed by addressing the different opinions holding the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
- While the Democratic Party claims that government should hold the big power and entitlements, the Republicans believe the government should share its powers with the states and people.
- Globalization The changes caused by globalization.
- The government of the USA subsidy farmers, which lead to the decrease price of agricultural products in comparison to India, 10 million farmers in India earn just about $2 per day.
- In general, this lecture talks about the problems caused by globalization.
- The lecture talked about globalization.
- Integrated economics strategy /organization integration.
- Different countries consume or produce different goods, so countries would depend on the economy of other countries.